Posts Tagged ‘broadcasting’

Some thoughts on Schubert

Every now and then, Radio 3 devotes a few days of its schedules mainly, or even wholly, to the works of a single composer. Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and Chopin have all been given this treatment, to the great joy of their respective fans, but to the chagrin of certain killjoys who apparently find it too difficult to listen their CD collection for a while if they do not particularly care for what is on the radio. Right now, it is Schubert who is receiving this Radio 3 treatment, and I, for one, couldn’t be happier: Schubert’s music has come to mean much to me over the years.

It’s hard to speak about Schubert without speaking of his tragic early death – he was only 31 when he died – and of the shadow of death that haunts so much of his finest work. This inevitably leads to arguments on the extent to which our knowledge of the artist’s life should influence our reaction to his work. The answer to that question is, obviously, “not at all”: a work stands or falls on its own terms. But even if we knew absolutely nothing about Schubert’s life, even if we were to judge his works purely on their own terms, we would still, I think, be detecting in them that death-haunted quality.

Not, of course, that it is all doom and gloom. Very few composers have communicated the sheer joy of living as exuberantly as Schubert has done – even, sometimes, in some of his very late works. But joy in life is not incompatible with awareness of death: indeed, the two often go together, as awareness of the eventual loss of one’s life is all the more affecting when one loves that life deeply. That is at least one reason why the grave doth gape thrice wider for the likes of Falstaff than for other men.

The grave certainly gaped wide indeed for Schubert. That is not merely a fanciful reading: music, of course, is abstract, but there is little abstract about so many of the texts Schubert chose to set to music. The early song cycle, Die Schöne Müllerin, so full of the joys of living and of loving, so replete with the sounds of nature, turns insidiously towards darkness; while the later song-cycle Winterreise is effectively music to slash your wrists to: the darkness is there from the beginning, and by the end, even the consolation of death is denied. Somehow, even the most angst-ridden of music by other composers can seem insipid in comparison. Compared to the Schubert of Winterreise, Leonard Cohen appears quite a jolly old chap.

And the instrumental works also: music may be abstract, but I doubt there are too many who could listen to, say, the C minor piano sonata, or to the string quintet, and come away thinking they are jolly, happy works. They have happiness in them, sure: Schubert was no monomaniac. But the sense of a deep, impenetrable darkness is never too faraway.

Of course, there’s more, much more, to Schubert than this. Ask anyone who loves Schubert what draws them to the music, and, regardless of how learned or otherwise they may be in musical matters, one thing they are all bound to mention is his extraordinary gift for melody. Oh, other composes have excelled in melody as well – Handel, Mozart, Verdi, Tchaikovsky, Gershwin – but no-one quite equalled Schubert in this respect. And it is impossible to explain why. What is melody, after all? A sequence of notes played to a particular rhythm. So what is it that makes certain sequences of notes so much better than certain others? It is an impossible question to answer, and remains one of the great mysteries in life: we simply do not know, and, I guess, never will know, just why it is that a succession of pitched sounds can exert so powerful an effect on us. Analysts may examine what features make for good tunes, but not even the most powerful computer programme armed with all the fruits of such analysis could create a melody that touches the soul so deeply as do so many of Schubert’s. Just listen, for instance, to the melody of the song “Du Bist die Ruh”; or to that second theme of the string quintet, or of the “Unfinished” symphony; or to the serene opening of the B flat piano sonata; or to that heartbreaking theme of the slow movement of the B flat piano trio; or to dozens of others that occur so easily even off the top of one’s head. Art, I realise, is not a competitive sport, and there is little point in creating league tables, but when it comes to putting together tunes, there really is no-one who could match Schubert.

It’s not just melody, of course: I have not had a musical education, and would be very embarrassed even to try to speak of such matters as harmony: I do not know, for instance, just what the modulation is towards the end of the slow movement of the B flat piano sonata; but I do know the effect that modulation has on me, even on repeated listening when I am expecting it. It has the effect of a window suddenly opening on to a new world. And Schubert did this sort of thing so often!

So, if one had to pick a favourite work by Schubert, what would it be? An impossible question to answer, though various musical luminaries offer their thoughts here. Recently, I have been listening almost obsessively to Schubert’s last string quartet (No 15 in G major, D887): it is a work of deep unease, and, despite passages of the most exquisite lyricism, ranges in mood from melancholy to sheer, unadulterated terror: it is a work that has a curious and inexplicable hold on me. But in the last few days, I have found myself listening increasingly to Schwanengesang, which is a collection of his last songs, put together and given that possibly sentimental title after Schubert’s death by his publisher. It is not, strictly speaking, a “song cycle”, although it is easy to see why it is often referred to as such: these are songs that simply ache with loss and yearning and desire. Even the song “Der Taubenpost”, which has the most delightful of melodies and which bounces along quite happily, focuses poignantly near the end on the word “sehnsucht” – “longing”.

At the heart of this collection are settings of six poems by Heinrich Heine, and they are so haunting that I swear I have heard them even in my sleep. One of these songs tells of a parting by the sea: we do not know who these people are, or why they are parting, but in the final line, the singer  tells us that he drunk her tears, and, ever since, has been poisoned by them. Another song tells of a portrait of which appears to come to ghostly life. And in “Der Doppelgänger”, the climactic song of the sequence, and one in which this greatest of melodists appears to abandon melody altogether, the singer returns to the place where his love had once lived but now lives no more, and, in a moment of sheer terror, sees the ghost of his own younger self, mourning his loss. These songs seem to take us into some mysterious hinterland of the mind, and reveal an emotional landscape that is unlike anything I think I have ever encountered.

So, can I take a full week of nothing but Schubert? Unlikely. Much of his music is far too intense. But then again, I doubt I’ll have the time anyway to listen to the radio without pause for a full week, But while the Schubert season lasts, I am more than happy to join in the celebrations of the works of one of the greatest and most  affecting of all creating artists.

From Greek Tragedy to Bollywood…

Some years ago, an Arts Centre in Midlands promoted itself with the slogan “Everything from Greek Tragedy to Bollywood”. 

It’s an interesting dichotomy. This arts centre wished, no doubt, to promote itself as inclusive, as an organisation that caters for both ends of the spectrum, and, by implication, all that lies between. But which spectrum? On the one hand, there is the spectrum of East-West (with the West referring to Europe, and the East, presumably, to the Indian subcontinent rather than to, say, China or Japan or Korea); and on the other hand, there’s the spectrum that is defined by high culture at one end, and popular culture at the other. But the slogan they chose – “Greek Tragedy to Bollywood” – conflates the two spectra, and aligns them. And this alignment is along entirely predictable lines: the West provides Greek tragedy – among the loftiest peaks of human achievement; and the East provides Bollywood – pure mindless kitsch. Except one should not say so openly, as that would be insulting to those millions from the Indian subcontinent who, poor devils, don’t have anything better. 

Maybe I made too much of this. Maybe it’s a pure accident that this arts centre came up with “From Greek Tragedy to Bollywood” rather than, say, “From Boy Bands to Sanskrit Drama”. Let’s be charitable on the point. And let us be charitable also to the organisers of the BBC Proms – the world’s largest classical music festival – who, last year, represented Western music with Handel and Haydn, Mozart and Mahler, Schubert and Schoenberg, and Indian music with … well, with Bollywood. Again. Years ago, when the Proms showcased Indian music, they would invite – as was and still, I think, is, reasonable for a festival of classical music – musicians of the Indian classical traditions. But the idea seems to have taken hold now that, in all contexts – even that of a festival of classical music – India is best represented by Bollywood. And so, in the midst of all the Bach and Beethoven, we were treated to the sort of pop concert that, to judge by the posters I see around Hounslow or Southall, is already performed quite frequently in Britain. And once again, the formulation is similar to the slogan of the Midlands art centre: the West provides the quality, the East provides the kitsch. 

These thoughts came back to me in the last few weeks when I received a few e-mails asking for my support for the campaign to save BBC Asian Network (“Asian” once again denoting “That which originates from the Indian sub-continent”) which is currently threatened with closure. I must confess that I did not sign the petition to save the channel. Quite apart from anything else, I am rather indifferent to the issue: I do not listen to this channel, and, should the campaign to save it succeed, I do not plan to listen to this channel: it does not broadcast anything that interests me. Of course, I don’t speak for everyone here: plainly, there are many who are interested in what this channel broadcasts; but it seemed foolish to add my support to an issue on which I, personally, am utterly indifferent. 

But, to be honest, the reasons for my reluctance to sign the petition went a bit deeper than that. This channel had set out on a strictly populist agenda: those who run this channel are as reluctant as the organisers of that Midlands arts centre or the organisers of the Proms even to acknowledge the existence of anything in the cultures of the Indian subcontinent more elevated or worthwhile than Bollywood and bhangra. If this channel really were representative of the music of the subcontinent, where, one may ask, are the ghazals? Where is the music of the various folk traditions? Where are the classical ragas? Where are the Rabindrasangeet? None of this is represented – not even in the form of a token gesture. Admittedly, Bollywood and bhangra are likely to be more popular than the more worthwhile aspects of Indian cultures, and those who care for the classical traditions of Indian music are very much in the minority; but it nonetheless seems somewhat ironic to me that those now talking about the importance of serving minorities had never for a moment given a thought to the minorities within their own ranks. 

But even if we were to put aside all of this, the basic fact remains that if a station that sets out doggedly to be populist cannot even command sufficiently high listening figures, then it has no reason to continue to exist. And that’s the case here: this station, from the very beginning, outlawed everything other than the most populist of elements; and yet, its listening figures are well below targets, and, from what I gather, dwindling. Campaigners claim that this channel deserves to survive because it serves a minority community that would otherwise not be served: under the circumstances, that sounds, I fear, like insulting humbug.